Adult Cardiac Surgery at the Apollo Hospitals Health City Hyderabad
Adult Cardiac Conditions : -
Arrhythmias (Abnormal or irregular heart rhythms)
Arrhythmias irregular beating of heart is due to different reasons like existing heart disease, blood electrolyte imbalances, cadriomyopathy or coronary artery disease.
The symptoms are dizziness, shortness of breath, palpitations, pain in chest, fatigue etc. Sometimes none of these symptoms might be there and only on evaluation arrhythmias can be detected.
There are different types of arrhythmias : -
- Bradycardia The heart beat is slower than the regular or normal heart i.e below 60 beats per minute.
- Tachycardia The heart beat is faster than the reglar rhythm i.e more than 100 beats per minute.
- Supra ventricular Arrhythmias Arrhythmias occurring in the upper chambers of the heart are called super ventricular.
- Ventricular Arrhythmias Arrhythmias occurring in the lower chambers of the heart are called ventricular Arrhythmias.
- Brady Arrhythmias Arrhythmias occurring due to existing heart disease.
Diagnostics : -
- ECG (Electrocardiogram).
- Stress Test.
- Holter Monitor.
Treatment : -
Pace maker implantation : -
A pace maker is a device used to manage arrhythmias. It helps in optimizing the heart rate to the desired level. The device sends electrical impulses to the heart muscle and keeps tracks of the hearts activity.
- Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (ICD) Insertions
- Medical Management
- Radio Frequency Ablation
- Maze Procedure (Surgery)
- Pulmonary Vein Isolation with LD reduction
Heart Valve Disease
The heart has 4 main valves mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary valve. The blood flow out of the heart is through valves. They regulate the flow of the blood for the heart. When these valves do not function correctly it affects the entire functioning of the heart.
There are 2 different types of valve dysfunctions : -
- Valvular Stenosis.
- Valvular Regurgitation.
Valvular Stenosis : - Stenosis or narrow valve obstructs the blood flow and the heart has to pump harder resulting in lower blood flow.
Valvular Regurgitation : - Here the valve does not close properly once the blood flows in resulting in backward flow of blood in to the atria when the heart contracts.
Causes : -
Valve diseases can be genetic and children are born with valve dysfunctions or in adults valve diseases occur due to other conditions like rheumatic fever, endocarditis.
The other causes basically are existing heart related problems like hypertension or confirmed heart diseases like cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, aneurysms, heart attacks etc.
Breathlessness, Usual weight gain, palpitations, swelling of legs and ankles etc
Diagnostics : -
- PETCT Scan
Treatment : -
Interventional Procedures : -
Though surgery is ideal in some scenarios patient is unable to withstand a surgery due to their physical condition in such patients interventional procedures are required like PERCUTANEOUS MITRAL, AORTIC AND PULMONIC VALVOTOMY FOR STENOSIS which is performed the cardiac interventional team at Apollo Health City.
Carotid Artery Disease/ Stroke
Heart Valve Surgery is of two types : -
Minimally invasive techniques with lesser incisions on the chest is followed for heart valve surgery if they find the patient eligible for it basing on the various diagnostic tests other wise the regular technique is used.
- Valve Repair
- Valve Replacement
Valve repair involves repairing of existing valve and valve replacement is replacing the valve with another mechanical or biological (tissue) valve.
The team at our Heart Institute has done over 2000 procedures involving single, double and triple valve replacements along with mitral valve repairs.
Aorta is the larger artery which leaves form the heart and provides oxygen rich blood to the entire body. Generally in most scenarios any damage caused to Aorta can lead to many diseases like Marfan syndrome - A genetic disease that affects the connective tissue that supply oxygenated blood throughout the body, Atherosclerosis - the arteries gets hardened. Patients suffering from Aorta Disease may develop aneurysms which are very dangerous and need immediate medical intervention.
Smoking, High blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol are some of the reasons for aneurysms. Patients with aneurysms are mostly asymptomatic but sometimes pain in the back, neck difficulty in breathing are some signs.
Diagnostics : -
- Chest x-ray
- Computed tomography (CT) Scan
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Ultrasound Abdomen>
Treatment : -
People detected with Aorta disease or Marfan syndrome requires both medical management and surgery.
The specialist team at Apollo Health City treats all kinds of aorta diseases including Marfan syndrome. A variety of procedures are performed here including Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, thoracic abdominal repairs and thoracic aorta endovascular stent graft procedures etc.
Adult Congenital Heart Diseases : -
Congenital Heart defects are those which occur before birth. But in some enarios the defects are either not detected early or cannot be treated and children grow up with these defects in to adults.
The Heart Institute offers treatment for Adult Congenital Heart defects like Tetrology of Fallot, Septal defect, Single Ventricle Physiology Procedures, Transposition of arteries etc.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Coronary Artery Disease or CAD is one of the major killers in India. In recent times CAD is effecting the youth as well. Busy lifestyles, stress, habits like smoking,alcohol, and fatty foods are leading to CAD in youth.
Heart Attacks (Myocardial infraction) are a manifestation of CAD's. Blockage or narrowing of coronary arteries leads to CAD's. The arteries supply blood to theheart; blockages caused in arteries like cholesterol, narrowing, atherosclerosis restrict blood flow to the heart. The heart starves for oxygen and nutrient rich blood causing an infraction or heart attack. Ischemia is a condition where the heart muscle gets cramped due to lack of blood.
Acute coronary syndrome is 3 types : -
- Angina : -
Poor blood supply to the heart for a small period is called angina. It can last over a period of time and can be treated with oral medications. Patient having known CAD carry their oral medications all the time.
- Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): -
In such infractions the ECG does not record any changes. In such scenarios chemical markers are used to diagnose it
- ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): -
Blockage in the supply of blood for a long period affect the heart muscle to a large extent. ECG and chemical markers show immediate changes.
Symptoms : -
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Excessive sweating
- Pain from the chest to the arms
Diagnosis : -
- Stress Test
- Chest X Ray
- Ultra sound
- Blood Investigations
- Advanced diagnostics involves Catheterization and Angiogram
Lifestyle Modifications: Patients diagnosed in initial stages of CHD are recommended to make life style modifications like quit smoking, reduce alcohol consumption, exercise, food modifications, monitoring blood pressure and diabetes and medications are prescribed by your cardiologist accordingly.
Interventional procedures are mostly used to open up blockages in the arteries. There are 3 types of interventional procedures : -
1) PTCA (Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty) or Balloon Angioplasty : -
This procedure involves placing of a small balloon at the tip of the catheter and inserting it in to the blocked artery. Once the balloon reached the blocked are it is inflated leading to dilation of the area.
2) Stent : -
A stent is a small metal tube that is inserted in to the blocked artery through the balloon. The metal tube restricts the blockage.
3) Rotablation (Percutaneous Transluminal Rotational Atherectomy or PTRA) : -
A diamond tip catheter is inserted in to the blocked artery. It is then rotated at high speed to clear the blockage.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery : -
CABG surgery involves bypassing the blocked coronary arteries with a blood vessel graft. These grafts are usually taken from patient's own arteries and veins located in the chest (thoracic), leg (saphenous) or arm (radial). The graft goes around the blocked artery (or arteries) to create new pathways for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart.
On Pump (Heart Lung Machine) Heart Surgery
Traditional CABG is performed on still heart i.e the circulatory system is entirely taken over by the heart lung machine that performs the functions of the heart and lungs during the surgery and the surgery is performed on the heart.
Off-Pump or Beating Heart Surgery
A highly advanced procedure in which the heart is kept in a controlled environment using advanced operating equipment and the surgery is performed while the heart is beating. The aim of off pump is to minimize the risk of other complications like renal failure , stroke and reduce the need of blood transfusion.
The decision to go for an off pump or on pump surgery completely lies with your surgeon. It is only decided on the operation table once they evaluate your circulatory system more closely. Both on pump and off pump heart surgeries have had similar results at the heart institute at Apollo Health City.
The patient after surgery is moved in the intensive care unit where he/she is thoroughly monitored. The surgeon decides when you are fit to leave the ICU and move to step down. In step down along with monitoring and medication the patient is put through a rehab program.
Carotid Artery Disease/ Stroke
Carotid Arteries supply blood to the brain. There are two carotid arteries pass from wither side if your wind pipe and a damage to the carotid arteries lead to stroke.
Symptoms : -
- Slurring of speech
- Blurred vision/ blackout
- Paralysis or numbness in the hands or part of the face etc.
Risk Factors : -
- Family history of Heart Disease / stroke
Diagnosis : -
People having a family history of diabetes/hypertension and nay other heart diseases should have regular preventive medical checkups to assess their conditions. Apollo Health City offers a wide range of health check ups for the benefit of out clients. Please go though our site for information regarding the health checks being offered
- Carotid Ultrasound
- Carotid CT Scan or Advance PET CT Sca
Interventional Carotid Procedures
- Carotid Angiography : -It is a diagnostic procedure where in a catheter is guided in to your carotid arteries with the aid of x ray machine and the extent of blockage is determined by the cardiologist
- Carotid Angioplasty Balloon : -Usually performed after the angiography where in a catheter with balloon is inserted to burst the clot or the blockage is compressed against the artery walls
- Carotid Angioplasty Stenting : -A stent is place over a ballon and guided to the area of blockage
- Carotid Endarterectomy : -The procedure involves making an incision in the neck near the blockage and removing the diseased part and sewing the artery back in place.
Branches of Apollo Hospitals in India : -
||Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India
||Apollo Specialty Hospital, Chennai, India
||Apollo Hospitals, Bangalore, India
||Apollo Hospitals, Ahmadabad, India
||Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, India
||Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India
||Apollo Victor Hospitals, Goa, India
||Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India
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