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Hip Replacement

Hip Replacement Causes

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Hip Replacement - Causes and Treatments

A surgical operation to replace the inside surface of the hip joint (the "ball and socket").

Description of Hip Replacement

Time, injury to the joint, coupled with arthritis, may lead to degeneration of the hip joint, causing pain, deformity, and restricted movement. Hip replacement surgery, also called total hip arthroplasty (THA), hip resurfacing, or total hip resurfacing may be an option if your daily activities are limited by uncontrollable pain and your x-rays show an end-stage arthritis not amenable to other treatments.

The goals of hip replacement surgery are pain relief, return to function, and routine activities of daily living. For more than 30 years, hip replacement surgery has provided an improvement in quality of life and led to a dramatic change in patients' lifestyles that suffered from arthritic conditions of the hip joint. In the U.S., more than 200,000 hips are replaced each year. The operation is by far the most successful surgery for treating advanced arthritis of the hip, and it may be one of the most successful surgeries ever developed in terms of dramatic change in patient function.

The most common reasons for hip replacement surgery are : -

  • Osteoarthritis : - Generally attributed to wear and tear with age, osteoarthritis is a gradual deterioration of the cartilage that cushions bones within a joint. As cartilage wears away, surrounding joint structures grow irregularly and can become inflamed and painful. Eventually bone can begin to rub against bone. Most forms of osteoarthritis are likely due to a structural or anatomical minor abnormality of the joint that produces abnormal mechanics of the joint over the years, leading to wear.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis : - Inflammation of the tissues surrounding joints leads to worn and swollen joints. This disease may eventually lead to deterioration of cartilage and destruction of joints. Typically, multiple joints are involved, including the neck (cervical spine) which may be life-threatening if left untreated.

  • Osteonecrosis : - (also known as Avascular necrosis (or AVN)): A loss of blood supply to the ball of the hip joint occurs. There may be an association with blood clotting factors or proteins and cholesterol metabolism.The result is pain, eventual collapse of the surface of the ball (femoral head), and in the end-stages, severe arthritis may develop, The most common causes that lead to a loss of this blood supply are: heavy alcohol intake on a regular basis, chronic use of oral steroids, such as Prednisone, prior trauma or surgery to the hip (hip dislocation or fracture), blood disorders that may block the blood supply (sickle cell disease), HIV disease (likely causes osteonecrosis in relation to the medications prescribed for HIV), and idiopathic (no known reason established). Less common disorders include metabolic diseases and chronic exposure to high underwater atmospheric pressure (Caisson's disease).

  • Hip disorders or fractures : - Hip replacement surgery is also used to repair disorders and fractures of the hip, although less commonly. Occasionally, a partial hip replacement (hemiarthroplasty) may be performed in the treatment of a hip fracture.

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Treatment of Hip Replacement

Different Types of Hip Replacements : -

  • Total Hip Replacement : - Both the ball and the socket are replaced; the socket is replaced wit ha metallic or plastic cup (with or without screws), while the ball is replaced with a ball attached to a long stem. The stem is fixed into the upper thigh bone (femur) with either a porous bone ingrowth surface, or, with cement. The movement of the hip occurs as the head or ball rotates on the surface of the cup. Various surface combinations are available (see below).

  • Hip Resurfacing : - Total and Hemi (partial): Less commonly performed, these procedures are now becoming available in the U.S. They are similar to a total hip replacement. In total resurfacing, no stem is placed, and the ball is resurfaced only, and glides against a cup placed in the socket. In a hemi resurfacing, only the head is resurfaced, and the socket is left alone. The metal head glides against the patients own cartilage in the socket. There are advantages and disadvantages of these techniques, which sho0uld be discussed with the surgeon preoperatively.

  • Surface Options in Hip Replacement : - The surfaces that glide together in a hip replacement make up the bearing surface. This is most commonly a metal ball against a polyethylene (plastic) liner. Other options of bearing surfaces have been developed and studied and are available for use in the U.S. The purpose of these alternatives is to potentially reduce the "wear over time" that occurs with polyethylene. Examples of these surfaces are noted below. Again, there are advantages and disadvantages of each of these surface combinations, and patients should inquire preoperatively which surface is best for them:

Hip replacement surfaces Ball Socket
Standard hip replacement metal polyethylene (plastic)
Standard + cross-linked poly metal or ceramic highly cross-linked poly
Ceramic-ceramic ceramic ceramic
Metal - metal metal metal
Ceramic + cross-linked poly ceramic highly cross-linked poly
Oxinium oxidized zirconium highly cross-linked poly

Minimally Invasive Hip Replacement Surgery

Recently, minimally invasive hip replacement surgery has become a popular alternative to having a standard incision hip replacement. There are many advantages and few disadvantages of this less invasive surgery. Not all patients are candidates for this type of surgery. You should discuss this with your doctor to determine if it is appropriate for your condition.

The list of of Hip Replacement Hospitals in India is as follows : -

Apollo Hospitals Bangalore Apollo Hospitals, Bangalore, India
Apollo Hospital Chennai Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India
Apollo Hospitals Hyderabad Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, India
Apollo Hospitals Delhi Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India
Apollo Hospitals Kolkata Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India
Apollo Hospital, Goa, India Apollo Hospital, Goa, India
Wockhardt Hospital Bangalore India Wockhardt Hospital, Bangalore India
Wockhardt Hospital Mumbai, India Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai, India
Fortis Hospital, Delhi, India Fortis Hospital, Delhi, India
Fortis Hospital Mohali, India Fortis Hospital, Mohali, India
Fortis Hospital Noida, India Fortis Hospital, Noida, India
Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, India Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, India
MIOT Hospital, Chennai, India MIOT Hospital, Chennai, India
Sparsh Hospital, Bangalore, India Sparsh Hospital, Bangalore, India
Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon ( Delhi ) , India
Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular  hospital,  Delhi, India Max Devki Devi Heart and Vascular hospital, Delhi, India
BGS Global Hospital Bangalore, India BGS Global Hospital, Bangalore, India
BGS Global Hospital Chennai, India BGS Global Hospital, Chennai, India
BGS Global Hospital Hyderabad, India BGS Global Hospital, Hyderabad, India

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